OPTIMUM DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF AUTOMATIC HAND SANITIZER MACHINE

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Written By Rameez

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Faculty of Sciences

Department of Physics

University of Central Punjab

Lahore

OPTIMUM DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF AUTOMATIC HAND SANITIZER MACHINE

 

 

(Session 2018-22)

Submitted By

  Registration No. Name
B1F18BSPH0008       Sidra Asghar
B1F18BSPH0006       Hina Badar
B1F18BSPH0011       H.M Ali Qureshi

 

 

 

 

 

DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS

FACULTY OF SCIENCES

UNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL PUNJAB

(2022)

University of Central Punjab

 

FACULTY OF SCIENCES

__________________________________________________

 

Certificate from Supervisor

 

 

The undersigned hereby certify that I have read the project title “Optimum design and evaluation of automatic Hand Sanitizer Machine” by Sidra Asghar, Hina Badar and M Ali Qureshi. I recommend the submission of the project to the Faculty of Sciences in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor Studies.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Supervisor: ____________________

Prof. Dr. Abdul Kareem Khan

Associate Professor

Head of Department

Department of Physics

Faculty of Sciences

University of Central Punjab

 

University of Central Punjab

 

FACULTY OF SCIENCES

__________________________________________________

 

Project Evaluation Committee

 

The viva voice examination ofSidra Asghar, Hina Badar, and M Ali Qureshi(B1F18BSPH0008), (B1F18BSPH0006) and (B1F18BSPH0011) session 2018-22 was held on 24-06-2022 at the Faculty of Sciences, University of Central Punjab. The committee recommends the award of the degree of BS Physics.

Project Evaluation Committee:

  1. Dr. Abdul Kareem Khan 2. Prof. Dr. M Tariq Bhatti

_________________________         ­_______________________

  ________________________
  Muhammad Aurangzeb
  Dean
  Faculty of Sciences, UCP

 

 

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dedicated to

Our Beloved Parents,my teacher’s with whom struggles and prayers we performed this job.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Content

Acknowledgments…………………………………………………………………………….1

Abstract……………………………………………………………………………………….2

List of figures…………………………………………………………………………………………3

List of Tables…………………………………………………………………………………………..4

Abbreviations……………………………………………………………………………………5

Chapter-01…………………..……………………………………………………………..…6

  1. Introduction………………………………..………………………….………………..…7
    • Hand Sanitizer………………………………………………………………………….8
      • Purposes…………………………………………………………………………….…9
      • Hand Sanitizer kill germs……………………………………………………………….9
      • Working…………………………………………………………………………………….10
      • Uses………………………………………………………………………….……….10
      • Benefits……………………………………………………………………………….10
    • Pros & Cons of Hand Sanitizer………………………………………………………..13
      • Pros……………………………………………………………………………………13
      • Cons…………………………………………………………………………………..13
      • The bottom line……………………………………………………………………….14

Chapter-02…………………………………………………………..……………………….15

  1. Materials and Methods…………………………………………………………………15
    • Materials…………………………………………………………………………………15
      • Resistors………………………………………………………………………………15
      • Obstacle Sensor………………………………………………………………………16
      • Transistor…………………………………………………………………………….18
      • 6V water pump………………………………………………………………………..20
      • 5V battery Charger……………………………………………………………………22

Chapter-03…………………………………………………………………..………………24

  1. Project Work…………………………………………………………………..…………25

3.1 Figures of Project Work ………………………………………………………………….26

Chapter-04………………………………………………..…………………………………32

  1. Results & Discussions…………………………..……………………………………….33
    • Results………………………………………………………………………………….33
    • Discussions…………………………………………………………………………….33

Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………….34

  • Future Plan ………………………………………………………………………….34

References………………………………………………………………………………..35

 

Acknowledgments

First of all, I am thankful to “ALMIGHTY ALLAH”. Who gave me the strength, patient and courage need to write and complete this report. I am grateful to all of those with whom I have had the pleasure to work during this project. A Special thanks to all the staff and leadership of Department of Physics for setting the ground and arrangements in completion of this report.  I am highly indebted to Prof.Dr. Abdul Kareem khan for this guidance and constant supervision as well as for providing necessary information regarding the project and also for their support in completing the report. At the end, we would like to express appreciation to our beloved parents, siblings who spent most of their time helping and guiding us through every minute of our life to achieve our life’s goal. Their presence by our shoulders never made us reluctant or afraid thus making it possible to coming to its happy ending and moving forward to next step in our life.

 

 

 

Abstract

The automatic hand sanitizer dispensing machine is a machine-controlled device. Alcohol is the principal solvent in this non-contact hand sanitizer. This equipment is used in a variety of places, such as hospitals, enterprises, workplaces, and intuitions. Alcohol is a volatile material that evaporates quickly when applied to our hands, it disinfects better than soap or any other solid soap and does not require water to clean. According to research, alcohol kills the corona virus in our hands at a high rate. The percentage of alcohol in the blood is higher than 70%. The main purpose of the project is to use sophisticated technology to design an automation machine that would make our environment more sanitary and cleaner in today’s world. When compared to other tools, this automatic dispenser is very cheap and germs free. We design this circuit by using the components like 6V water pump, obstacle sensor, 1000-ohm resistor, TIP42C transistor and 5V battery charger. By assembling all the components, we made a circuit which is known as the automatic hand sanitizer.

 

 

List of Figures

 

Figure 1.1 : Automatic hand sanitizer………………………………………………………………………………….7

Figure 1.2 :Hand sanitizer………………………………………………………………………………………………….8

Figure 1.3 :portability……………………………………………………………………………………………………..11

Figure 1.4 :Ideality for group setting…………………………………………………………………………………11

Figure 1.5 :To reduce illness…………………………………………………………………………………………….12

Figure 1.6 :Soften the Hands……………………………………………………………………………………………12

Figure 1.7:Pros and cons………………………………………………………………………………………………….13

Figure 2.1:Resistor of 1K ohm………………………………………………………………………………………….15

Figure 2.2:Obstacle sensor……………………………………………………………………………………………….16

Figure 2.3:Working of obstacle sensor………………………………………………………………………………17

Figure 2.4: Transistor………………………………………………………………………………………………………18

Figure 2.5: 6V water pump………………………………………………………………………………………………20

Figure 2.6: 5V battery charger………………………………………………………………………………………….22

Figure 3.1:All components of the system…………………………………………………………………………..25

Figure 3.2: Assembling the components…………………………………………………………………………….25

Figure 3.3: To scheme the circuit……………………………………………………………………………………..26

Figure 3.4:Connecting the charger…………………………………………………………………………………….26

Figure 3.5:To secure circuit components…………………………………………………………………………..27

Figure 3.6:To use water tube …………………………………………………………………………………………..27

Figure 3.7:To connect the  pump……………………………………………………………………………………..27

Figure 3.8:Dispenser in operational form………………………………………………………………………….28

Figure 4.1:Graph b/w ultrasonic reading (cm) and hand sanitizer% ……………………………………..33

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

List of Tables

 

Table 4.1: Probabilistic working of Hand Sanitizer…………………………………………….31
                                

Abbreviations

 

CDC               Centers for disease control

IR                    Infrared receiver

FET                 Field effect transistor

MOSFET        Metal Oxide Field Effect Transistor

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter -01

Introduction

 

  1. Introduction

Too soon 2020, a corona virus spread very fatly in almost all countries. The first case about corona virus was reported in China. This disease named as WHO in 2019 novel corona virus, then changed it as corona virus disease as (COVID-19). This is zoonotic virus (a virus that is transmitted between animals and humans). Other than, this virus can also be transmitted from human to human it can be transmitted by air and either by direct or indirect contact. But it is most commonly spread by drops. The symptoms which are caused by this virus are mild flue, namely a cold, sore throat, cough, fever and difficulty breathing. In several cases, a corona virus can show as pneumonia. Patientsacuterespiratory distress syndrome for a short time and die from multiple organ failure. (Das et al., 2021)

Figure 1 automatic hand sanitizer

This virus disease can impact on both socio-economic. China has decreed this disease and many cities almost all around the world are in a lockdown situation. To put the source of this virus, it can be end by keeping a distance at least 2 feet and keep away from crowded places, keep away from touching the eyes, nose and mouth when you are outside, and then cleaning and rub hands by a soap and sanitizers. This could be a point of transference COVID-19. More health actions can carry out using automatic systems including air quality and sanitizer and many other systems. Hand sanitizers are alternate for hand washing during a pandemic. It can be used with and without water. It can be used in several forms like gel, liquid and spray. The germs were killing in this process by removing the oil on the skin, then the germs from the body will appears on surface. The bacteria will kill by using soap or alcohol. The aim of this phenomenon is to make an automatic hand sanitizer and soap where soap and sanitizer will come automatically. However, by other hand sanitizers use by touching the machines where the people will also contact with one another and it proven not be very useful for the disease of this corona viruses. So, we use an automatic hand sanitizer machine to prevent the viruses. (Michael et al., 2020)

1.1

Hand sanitizer

figure 1.2 automatic hand sanitizer

Liquid hand sanitizers, predominantly alcohol-based gels, have been quite widespread in the last ten years. By travelling in a plane or entering in a class room in united states, mostly we seen hand sanitizers in use. For through hand washing sanitizers are not additional. In its place, when it is not possible to do so they provide customer some hand washing benefits. Hand sanitizer reduce disease as Epidemiologic studies have not convincingly, hand sanitizers help to prevent disease by destroying passing dangerous microorganism which are suggested by some laboratory explore. Handwashing and hand sanitizers both work in various ways to lower germ populations. Hand-washing, whether with “antiseptic” or “regular” detergent, actually eliminates microbes from the skin, washing the consciousbacteria down the trench. Hand antiseptics eliminate bacteria on surfaces by murder them chemically, similar to how purifiersslay germs on surfaces. The degree of the result of handwashing is mainlyresolute by the quantity of time spent washing and the type of soap used. It is distant feweractual to wash hands deprived of soap. Hand sanitizers are most effective when a substantial amount of product is applied to the hands. By means of a large amount of hand sanitizer confirms that there is anspare of energetic components and that the chemical motiontakes longer before the hand sanitizer disappears. Antiseptics, on the other hand, canister be reserved on surfaces for up to 5 minutes. To have the desired impact, hand antiseptics must complete their work in a short amount of time. The fact is that most entities can’t opinion having their hands wet for more than 30 seconds. As a result, Microchem Laboratory considers that the contact time restriction for laboratory testing of hand sanitizers should be 30 seconds – possibly one minute in rare situations. Although hand sanitizers can be powered by a variety of active chemicals, have you ever observed that alcohol is the most common active ingredient? This is due in great part to the way they are governed.(Harismah et al., 2021)

1.1.1                Purposes:

  1. Hand sanitizers also known as hand medicated and hand rub. Hand rub is a disinfectant, that is used to kill the commonly germs.
  2. Hand sanitizers are in forms of soap, gel and liquids.

3.when soap and water are not accessible for hand washing, or when reputative hand washing declines the natural covering barrier, they should be used (e.g., causing scaling).

4.For the infection prevention in a varied diversity of situation hand sanitizers is present, from schools to hospitals and health care clinics, from day care centers, and from super markets to cruise ships, despite its inconsistent effectiveness.(Harismah et al., 2021)

1.1.2          Germs can hand sanitizer kill.

Conferring to the rusted source, an alcohol-based hand sanitizer that encounters the maltcapacity criterion can rapidlydecrease the number of bacteria on hands. Itscontainer also aid in the destruction of a variety of diseasecauses representatives or viruses on our hands, such as the innovativecoronavirus. Unfluctuating the utmosthand sanitizer which is alcohol-based, however, have boundaries and prohibited slay all pathogens. Hand sanitizers, according to the CDC, will not remove potentially hazardous substances. It also doesn’t work against the following germs: The cryptosporidium, which causes cryptosporidiosis, is caused by the norovirus Cryptosporidium difficile, generally known as C. diff. Also, if our hands are noticeably dull or slimy, a hand sanitizer might not be effective. This can occur after handling diet, doing patch work, nursery, or participating in sports. If hands are filthy or slimy, wash them in its place of using a hand sanitizer.( Semeste , 2017)

1.1.3          working of hand sanitizer

The basic concept of the development of hand sanitizer was the presence of it when there is no presence of water and soap. Hand sanitizers are the alcohol-based gels which kill the germ from our skin. Alcohol kills tiny organisms and the majority of viruses swiftly and effectively. Since alcohol dries the skin, maximum sanitizers also include a lotion to prevent coveringaridness and annoyance.(Jadhav, 2021)

1.1.4       Use of hand sanitizer

For the effective use of hand sanitizers, put a minorquantity on the palm of your hand, around the size of our thumbnail, to cover the whole hand rb it over it, including our nailbeds. If the lotion or gel disappears totally in less than 15 seconds, you haven’t secondhand enough hand sanitizer.(Gupta et al 2020)

1.1.4          Benefits of Hand Sanitizer:

  • Cleanliness

This should not be shocked the most important advantage of the hand sanitizer is that it is hand sanitizer. The purpose of its designing is to get rid of germs and to take care of professional. When we use correctly hand sanitizer it may remove 99% germs from our skin. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend washing your hands every timewe are round food (either making it or intake it), animals, waste, and that’s just the beginning. In this situation  an excellent addition to cleaning the hands with water and soap is hand sanitizer.(Foddai et al., 2016)

  • Portability

fig 1.3 portability 1

It is difficult to take a sink every time with us everywhere. In these situations when we need to wash our hands water and soap are not available. The hand sanitizer in a little amount should be in our glove box or even in a pocket. In the market or when we left the public place or when we are taking a break from a game, is great to keep it with you.(Sarkar, 2020)

  • Ideal for Group Settings

figure 1.4 ideality for group settings

In the offices germs spread quickly, in the schoolroom, or anywhere there is a ration of foot traffic. When you are making food, other people’s germ may influence you or taking out the trash (especially during the contact with other people). This is why having hand sanitizer on hand in a group setting is ideal. Educators, students, and office workers may use a jet of hand sanitizer before soaring to the followingworkout machine to removemicrobes for the period of the day deprived ofleave-taking their study gallery or work zone, and unfluctuating gym-goers can use a jet of hand sanitizer earliersoaring to the followingworkoutappliance. (Lee et al., 2020)

  • Decreases Risk of Illness

figure 1.5 to reduce illness

Limiting your revelation to other grassrootsgerms is particularly important throughoutinfluenza season. Every time you take a break throughout the day, you decrease your chances of being harsh. Definitely, smooth a rapidvisit to a friend’s home or the stock can picture you to microbes that could source a emotionless, influenza, or dissimilarillnesses, so custody your hands as clean as imaginable is important.(Thrombase et al., 2022)

  • Hands That Feel Softer

figure 1.6 soften the hands

This is one of the utmost incredible benefits of the hand sanitizer, but the situation not impossible. Non-alcohol sanitizers can significantly improve the surface of handskin. Emollients in mostly our skin feel soft by using sanitizers, giving smoother, more appealing hands. We noticesign a difference in the way our skin looks fresh and soft safter using this product. During pandemics like COVID-19 or influenza season avoid to the use of alcohol-based hand sanitizer because this thing effects to damage the skin or to removes skin natural oil also cause to rack it.(Sarkar, 2020)

1.2

The pros and cons of hand sanitizer

figure 1.7 pros and cons

1.2.1       Pros

Hand sanitizers are useful. It can be used anywhere, which increases the likelihood of it being used. It’s preferable to not washing your hands. Indirect transfer can be prevented with hand sanitizer. It aids in the prevention of the spread of bacteria and viruses among patients by healthcare employees in a hospital setting. A nurse, for example, is sneezed on by Patient X. She exits Patient X’s room and cleans her hands with hand sanitizer. Patient Y is then touched by the nurse. Patient Y’s chances of contracting Patient X’s infection have been reduced. This also applies to handwashing with soap and water.(Das et al., 2021)

1.2.2       Cons

The majority of viruses are transferred through direct contact with contagious individuals. In a community setting, hand sanitizers have no effect on the spread of contact droplets. So, if someone sneezes or coughs directly on you or near you, like our unhappy nurse experienced, no amount of hand sanitizer will stop you from becoming ill. Hand sanitizers include a significant amount of alcohol, usually more than 60%. The skin is dried out by alcohol. Cracks, blisters, and other skin problems result from damage to the outer layers of the skin. ALL microorganisms (both beneficial and harmful) are destroyed by alcohol and other antimicrobial agents. As a result, the skin barrier is now drier, more vulnerable to harm, and its natural microbe-fighting defenses are no longer active. Friction, which sloughs off bacteria and dead skin cells, is the most effective way to remove dangerous microbes. Handwashing for 30 seconds with soap and water is more efficient at preventing the spread of viruses and bacteria. Most people do not rub their hands together for 30 seconds when applying hand sanitizer.(Foddai et al., 2016)

1.3               The bottom line

Our bodies have a number of natural defenses against dangerous bacteria. Our skin serves as our primary line of defense against infection. Antimicrobial products aren’t necessary if you keep your skin healthy and clean, wash your hands properly, and stay away from symptomatic people. Use hand sanitizer when there is no availability of water and soap. Wear a mask to help with our present situation.(Eddy  Mohammed, M. N. et al., 2020)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter-02

 

Materials and Methods

 

  1. Materials and Methods

2.1 Materials

  • Plastic jar
  • narrow pipe
  • 6v water pump
  • obstacle sensor
  • 1k ohm resistor
  • TIP 42C transistor
  • 5v battery charger
2.1.1
1k ohm resistor

figure 2.1 resistor of 1k ohm

A resistor limitsthe flow of current in one of three sides : 1st, by paying a less conductive material, 2nd,to make the conductive material stripper, and 3rd, to make the conductive material longer. (Samimi et al., 2017)

  • WORKING

When creating electric or electronic circuits for specific tasks, exact degrees of resistance are frequently required. They can do it by using resistors, which are small electronic components. Basically, a resistor is a little package of resistance that, when connected to a circuit, it lowers current by a certain amount. From the outside, all resistors appear to be the same. A resistor is a little, worm-like component with colorful stripes on the side, as illustrated in the top and bottom photos on this page. It comes with two connections, one on each side, for connecting it to a circuit. A resistor is a passive electrical component with two terminals that inhibits current flow in electrical or electronic circuits. . Resistance is the ability to resist current flow, and it is measured in ohms (), named after German physicist Georg Simon. Ohm. Resistors are available in a wide range of sizes. Its size is proportional to the amount of power it possesses. The power rating is the maximum amount of power a resistor can dissipate without being destroyed by severe heat build-up. A resistor’s surface area determines how much power it can dissipate.(Samimi et al., 2017)

2.1.2           Obstacle sensor:

figure 2.2 obstacle sensor

The Infrared Obstacle Avoidance Sensor is made up of two infrared transmitting and receiving sensors. When an impediment appears in the line of infrared light, the obstruction reflects the light back, which is recognized by the receiver, and the infrared LED emits infrared signals at a specific frequency When the sensor detects an obstruction, the LED indicator flashes, sending a low-level output signal to the OUT pin. The detecting range of the sensor is 2 to 30cm. The detecting distance can be changed by adjusting a potentiometer on the sensor. The Infrared Obstruction Sensor Module’s built-in IR transmitter and IR receiver send out IR energy and look for reflected IR energy to detect the presence of any obstacle in front of the sensor module Users can adjust the detection range using a potentiometer onboard the module. The sensor delivers a very good and consistent response in both ambient light and full darkness. (Eddy  Mohammed, M. N. et al., 2020)

 

 

 

 

  • WORKING PRINCIPLE

The infrared transmitter sends out a signal that reflects off a reflective surface (like white) in numerous directions, including the IR receiver, which picks up the signal and detects the object. The object cannot be detected by the sensor because the IR signal is not reflected when the surface is absorbent. This effect will occur even if the object isn’t present.

The three pins on the module are Vcc, GND, and the output. We also incorporate two LEDs:

figure 2.3 working

The first is for illumination, and the second is for illumination. moment the device is plugged in, it turns on for power. The other is for obstacle detection. An obstruction detection system employs ultrasonic sensors mounted on the front and/or rear bumpers. These sensors can measure the distance between your vehicle and nearby obstacles in the vicinity of the front or rear bumper. The motorist is alerted by beeps or a display on the dashboard. (Eddy  Mohammed, M. N. et al., 2020)

 

2.1.3
TIP 42 C Transistor

figure 2.4 transistor

The Tip42c is a medium-power transistor that is mostly used for switching and amplification. It is made of silicon and is part of the PNP transistor family The collector and emitter terminals are both connected to a 100V supply.  as well as the base and collector terminals. The voltage across the base and emitter terminals is 5 volts, suggesting that this transistor requires 5 volts to bias. The collector current of this transistor is 6A, which shows the maximum load it can handle.(Samimi et al., 2017)

  1. The Tip42c is a medium-power PNP bipolar transistor that is mostly used for switching and amplification.
  2. It is made of silicon and is packaged in a TO-220 container.
  3. The emitter, base, and collector are the three pins that make up this circuit. These pins are also referred to as transistor terminals since they are connected to the external electrical circuit.
  4. A tiny input current across one pair of terminals is used to generate a high output current across other pairs.
  5. Tip42c has three layers, two of which are pdoped silicon layer, one of which is ndoped silicon. The n-doped layer represents the base terminal, which receives a negative voltage to initiate transistor operation. The n-doped layer is surrounded by the two p-doped layers.
  6. Bipolar transistors are classified as current-controlled devices since they control a small current to produce a high current, as opposed to FETs (field effect transistors), which are unipolar transistors (conductivity occurs due to one charge carrier) and are voltage-controlled devices.
  7. When researching bipolar transistors, two current increases are crucial. One is a common-emitter current gain, which in this case runs from 15 to 75, and the other is the term “common-base current gain” refers to the ratio of collector current to emitter current sometimes referred to as alpha.
  8. Its value is always less than 1, usually ranging from 0.90 to 0.95, however it is frequently assumed to be unity.
  9. TIP42C Applications
  • Circuits for general use
  • Audio amplifier
  • Power linear and switching
  • Motor Driver Circuit
  • H-bridge circuit
  • Battery Charger Designs
  • Power Supply Designs
  • Switching Loads under -6A
  • Darlington Pair
2.1.4           6v water pump

Pump for 6 volts Pump (DC) Submersible Water Pump with 6 Volts. It’s a compact, lowprice 6V water pump that can be powered by a 2.5-6V power supply.

figure 2.5 water pump

A water pump is a pump that employs mechanical and hydraulic principles to move water through a pipe system, as well as create sufficient force for future usage They have been basically in one structure or another since early civilisation. . CurrentlyThese pumps are used in a variety of applications including housing, farming, municipal, and manufacturing. The suction speed or flow rate of this water pump ranges from 80 liters per hour (L/H) at 3V (130 mA) to 12 L/H at 6V (220 mA). It has a 500-hour continuous working life. Connect a tube pipe to the water pump, submerge it in the water, and power it up with a 3V to 6V power supply to make it operate. Make sure the pump is submerged in water that is at least as high as the pump. Dry runs may cause the motor to overheat, resulting in damage and noise. This could be useful in tasks that require liquid transfer. Water that is sucked out of a container, such as from an automatic plant watering system. (Al-Waeli et al., 2017)

  • Working Principle

The operation of a water pump is essentially based on the positive displacement principle and the application of kinetic energy. propel water. For These pumps use AC or DC electricity to activate the water pump’s motor, although others may be powered by various types of engines, such as gasoline or diesel. A water pump is a device that circulates water, portable gadget that can be used for a variety of domestic tasks. These pumps transport large amounts of water from one location to another. A water pump’s primary function is versatility. A good pump, carefully chosen, can be ideal for draining water from a low-lying flooded area, refilling the swimming pool and bathtub, and circulating pesticides and fertilizers. This is a low-cost small submersible water pump with a 3-6V DC power supply. It’s really basic and straightforward to use. To start pumping water, just submerge the pump in water, connect an appropriate pipe to the output, and power the motor with 3-6V. Ideal for scientific projects, fire extinguishers, firefighting robots, fountains, waterfalls, and plant watering systems, among other things. This motor is small, light, and compact. Our DC Motor Drivers or one of our Relay Boards can be used to control it from a microcontroller/Arduino. This pump can be powered by our 5V SMPS Power Supply Adapter. You can also use our 6V Solar Panel with a 6V voltage regulator to power the pump. To start pumping water, just submerge the pump in water, connect an appropriate pipe to the output, and power the motor with 3-6V. Ideal for scientific projects, fire extinguishers, firefighting robots, fountains, waterfalls, and plant watering systems, among other things. This motor is small, light, and compact. Our DC Motor Drivers or one of our Relay Boards can be used to control it from a microcontroller/Arduino. This pump can be powered by our 5V SMPS Power Supply Adapter. You can also use our 6V Solar Panel with a 6V voltage regulator to power the pump. (Sarkar, 2020)

  • Applications
  1. Ideal for scientific projects, fire extinguishers, firefighting robots, fountains, waterfalls, and plant watering systems, among other things.
  2. Fountain water flow can be controlled.
  3. Watering systems for gardens that can be controlled
  4. Hydroponics are a type of hydroponic system.
  5. For fish aquariums, fresh water input or exhaust systems are available.
2.1.5
5v battery charger

figure 2.6 battery charger

It’s a single-cell Li-Ion battery with a linear constant current/constant voltage charger. The TP4056 is suited for portable applications thanks to its SOP40 packaging, which includes a heatsink on the bottom and less external components. The TP4056 can be used with USB and adapter power supplies. External isolation diodes are not required because of the internal PMOSFET architecture and anti-reverse charging path. During high-power operation or high-ambient-temperature situations, thermal feedback automatically changes the charge current to keep the chip cool. The charging voltage is fixed at 4.2V, and the charging current can be controlled by a resistor on the outside. The TP4056 will automatically terminate the charging cycle when the charging current reduces to the predefined value of 1/10 after achieving the final float voltage. The TP4056 automatically enters a low current mode when the input voltage (AC adapter or USB power) is removed, reducing the battery leakage current to less than 2uA. When there is a power supply, the TP4056 can be set to shutdown mode, which reduces the supply current to 55uA. Have you ever wondered how a cell phone charger works or how a little device converts a 220 – 230-volt AC supply to 5 volts or other necessary voltages? We will explain the circuit in this project. It is used to safely charge your phone gadgets by converting 220 volts of AC power into your cell phone’s voltage supply rating. In today’s market, cell phone chargers come with a variety of power supplies. We will build a circuit to generate a 5-volt regulated DC supply from a 220-volt AC supply in this project. This circuit can also be used to power other devices such as breadboards, microcontrollers, and integrated circuits. (Praneeth & Williamson, 2018)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter # 03

Project work

  1. Project work

STEP 1: We put all of the pieces together.

figure 3.1 apparatus

  • jar made of plastic pipe
  • Cell that can be charged
  • Water pump with 6 volts
  • sensor that detects obstacles
  • Resistor of one thousand ohms
  • Transistor TIP 42C

STEP 2. : Jumper wires were used to connect the battery to the Li-ion charging module. Jumper wire was used to link the sensor to the BD136 PNP transistor. A 1K resistor connects the transistor’s base to the ground.

 

 

 

 

 

figure 3.2

figure 3.3

STEP 3: Drilled a hole in the center of the container cap and threaded the motorwire through it, soldering it according to the circuit schematic. Then I connected the charger to see whether everything was functioning.

figure 3.4

 

 

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figure 3.5

STEP 4: I put hot glue to every solder joint after double-checking the process.

Figure 3.6

STEP 5: Then I used hot glue to secure all of the circuit components in their proper locations. I also use a glob of hot glue to keep the components secure and watertight.

STEP 6: I used a water tube to remove the sanitizer from the container. I

put aquarium tube inside the container and used it to connect the pump.

figure 3.7

STEP 7: The dispenser is now operational. You may now put whatever liquid you desire in your dispenser. Even viscous solutions like liquid soap and dishwashing liquids can be used! Because I use hand wash alcohol and hand rub frequently and particularlyi created this project.

figure 3.8

 

 

 

  • working
  • Project
  • Model

 

  • 3D Block Diagram or Map

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter-04

Results and Discussion

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Results and Discussion

  1. Results

We created an automatic hand sanitizing device It can be used in a number of containers When one raises their hand close to the device sensor, the hand sanitizer container is pumped once automatically. Hand sanitizers normally shoot sanitizer liquid when one presses a pump with one’s hand but our hand sanitizer is automatically pumped on the hand. Resultantly there is a probabilistic working of this sanitizer which pumps the  sanitizer from its spout relative to distance .

4.1               Table

 

Probabilistic working of hand sanitizer
Sr. No Distance (cm) Hand sanitizer %
1 10 30
2 8 50
3 6 80
4 4 90
5 2 99.9

 

 

 

 

4.2                         Graph
4.3                        Discussions

We created a hand sanitizer system that can be used in a variety of containers. When one raises their hand close to the gadget sensor, the hand sanitizer bottle is pumped once automatically. The automatic hand sanitizer device demonstrated in this study is designed to aid in contactless hand disinfection and virus infection prevention in public places. Because it decreases garbage emissions, it is both cost-effective and environmentally friendly.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.4                        Conclusions

We made this whole project at low cost and germs free to make it available for every citizen. Its working is based on obstacle sensor. As we set our hands far from the sensor it stops to work.  By decreasing the distance, it works properly. At 2cm it gaves 99.9% sanitizer.

4.5                        FUTURE SCOPE

4.0.1 FUTURE WORK

The system can be improved by adding smart electromagnetic lock which ensures only after sanitizing hands, the person is allowed inside. The approach can be extended to help the people with poor eyesight or blind people by installing a voice converter that converts the measured readings into voice signals and through a speaker the alert message is received. Alternative power sources such as solar can be installed to power up the system in case of the failure or cut off of the conventional power source. The sensors with more accuracy give much more improved results. The ultrasonic sensors whichis used as sanitizer level indicator can be sanitizer resistant, so that refilling sanitizers will not be a concern. A camera module with image processing technique and a database can be created to maintain the history of how many people went through the process in a firm or an industry, thereby providing us the statistics which will help plan better. These are the areas of concern that should be worked in to make this system an advanced one.

 

 

Refrences

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